According to a recent article published by Science Daily, “Using census data, satellite images, aerial photographs, and computer simulations, a NASA scientist estimated that turf grass is the single-largest irrigated crop in the United States” which begs the question what is the environmental cost? Moreover, while each of these responses combines philosophical analyses of scientific discovery with empirical research on actual human cognition, different sets of resources are mobilized, ranging from AI research and cognitive science to historical studies of problem-solving procedures.
Publications that are selected by the algorithms are to be considered ‘potential’ breakthroughs as long as experts have not yet drawn the conclusion whether the scientific discovery is or is not an actual breakthrough. In other words, language is to be the window through which people can see into the society.
Kuhn, T.S., 1970 1962, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd edition, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; first edition, 1962. Langley, P., 2000, The Computational Support of Scientific Discovery”, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53: 393-410.
The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of The English Language (Encyclopedic edition), defines language as, the expression and communication of emotions or ideas between human beings by means of speech and hearing, the sounds spoken or heard being systematized and confirmed by usage among a given people over a given period of time.” From the above view, it suggests that a language is supposed to communicate the internal (original) idea and express what a particular speaker has within.
Reichenbach maintains that philosophy of science includes a description of knowledge as it really is. Descriptive philosophy of science reconstructs scientists’ thinking processes in such a way that logical analysis can be performed on them, and it thus prepares the ground for the evaluation of these thoughts (Reichenbach 1938: § 1). Discovery, by contrast, is the object of empirical—psychological, sociological—study.