If we look life 100 years ago, and compare that with the today’s life, we will notice that Science has dramatically changed human life. The evident intentions of the current nuclear weapon states to retain large arsenals indefinitely, to maintain high states of alert, to continue to threaten first use of nuclear weapons even against states that do not possess them, and to pursue development of new types of nuclear weapons for increased effectiveness or new purposes are manifestly incompatible with the bargain embodied in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and corrosive of the nonproliferation regime ( 70 ).
Adequately addressing these and other needs in the science and engineering of the energy-environment interaction would probably require a 2- to 10-fold increase in the sum of public and private spending for energy research, development, and demonstration (ERD&D) ( 62 ). This sounds daunting, but the amounts involved are astonishingly small compared to what society spends for energy itself ( 63 ). There are signs that the private sector is ramping up its efforts in ERD&D in response to the challenge, but for reasons that have been abundantly documented ( 64 ), the public sector must also play a large role in the needed expansion.
Also urgently needed from S&T in the energy-climate domain are improved understanding of potential tipping points related to ice-sheet disintegration and carbon release from the heating of northern soils; a greatly expanded research, development, and demonstration effort to determine the best approaches for both geologic and enhanced biologic sequestration of CO2; a serious program of research to determine whether there are geoengineeringâ€ options (to create global cooling effects that counter the ongoing warming) that make practical sense; and wide-ranging integrated assessments of the options for adaptation ( 61 ).
The JST overseas offices are strategically located to capture the latest science and technology trends in their respective regions, actively promote the global activities of JST-funded Japanese researchers and leverage global networks to enhance and internationalize Japan’s S&T.
Since the fields represented by the Union touch the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences, it is natural that the Union is connected to the International Science Council (ISC) and the Conseil International de la Philosophie et des Sciences Humaines (CIPSH).