The content standards presented in this chapter outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. A specialized dictionary covering terms in the life, earth, and physical sciences, such as the online Science Dictionary on A science dictionary includes many technical terms with precise, specialized meanings—terms not normally found in general dictionaries—making it an invaluable resource for students and professionals in scientific fields.

E f 102 104 This is done partly through observation of natural phenomena, but also through experimentation that tries to simulate natural events under controlled conditions as appropriate to the discipline (in the observational sciences, such as astronomy or geology, a predicted observation might take the place of a controlled experiment).

To riff on the opening lines of Steven Shapin’s book The Scientific Revolution (1996), there is no such thing as a science-religion conflict, and this is an essay about it. It is not, however, another rebuttal of the ‘conflict narrative’ – there is already an abundance of good, recent writing in that vein from historians, sociologists and philosophers as well as scientists themselves.

Proclaiming the brotherhood of all species in his gentle, humane, inimitable style, there is nevertheless nothing soft or flabby about it, and it contains plenty of excitement, menace and that impingement of a strange cosmos upon ordinary life, which is the hallmark of a certain subgenre of science fiction – what one might call the small-town cataclysm.

For example, positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense.