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According to a recent article published by Science Daily, “Using census data, satellite images, aerial photographs, and computer simulations, a NASA scientist estimated that turf grass is the single-largest irrigated crop in the United States” which begs the question what is the environmental cost? Not only do empirical studies of actual scientific discoveries inform philosophical thought about the structure and cognitive mechanisms of discovery, but researches in psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and related fields have become an integral part of philosophical analyses of the processes and conditions of the generation of new knowledge.

Because the analysis of criteria for the appraisal of hypotheses has mostly been made with regard to the study of biological mechanism, the criteria and constraints that have been proposed are those that play a role in the discovery of biological mechanisms.

The results of applying our five algorithms to the validation dataset are presented Table 1. The second column in this table shows the numbers of publications that, according to our algorithms, should be considered potential breakthrough research-publications.

This dataset contains the 253,558 publications from the Web of Science database with types ‘article’ and ‘letter’ that were published between 1990 and 1994 and that belong to the 10% publications that are most cited in the first 24 months after publication.

After reanalyzing the data from the Dengvaxia clinical trials, scientists reported that the vaccine protected kids who already had been exposed to dengue, but increased the risk of severe infections in kids who hadn’t been , according to a study published July 2018 in the New England Journal of Medicine.