Science and technology provide many societal benefits, such as the enhancement of economic growth or quality of life. Once we do mankind just might be able to like that saying “boldly go where no man has gone before.” It is to this end that the Science and Technology directive focus on bringing together the rest of the international community and other industrialized nations in creating an International Space Exploratory Federation using all the available aerospace contractors and encouraging more countries to provide resources so that more opportunities in developing newer technologies will enable mankind to have the availability to fulfill our ultimate destiny.
In a seminal article, Trevor Pinch and Wiebe Bijker attached all the legitimacy of the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge to this development by showing how the sociology of technology could proceed along precisely the theoretical and methodological lines established by the sociology of scientific knowledge.
Faculty members have been elected to membership of the US National Academy of Engineering, US National Academy of Arts and Sciences, European Academy of Arts and Sciences, Royal Society of Chemistry, among other eminent international academic institutions.
The considerable progress that has been made in some important respects (such as in life expectancy, which has been improving virtually everywhere other than sub-Saharan Africa and the former Soviet Union) has been the result of a combination of economic and social factors, but improvements in technology appear to have been the most important ( 9 ). Among other advances, widespread gains in the productivity of agriculture, which played a crucial role in improving nutrition and health in the developing world, were driven above all by investments in agricultural S&T that yielded, in strictly economic terms, enormous rates of return; and export-led economic growth, providing the means with which the public and private sectors in many developing countries have contributed to lifting portions of their populations out of poverty, has likewise been driven strongly by technology ( 9 ).
The huge increase in fossil-fuel use over the past century and a half played a large role in expanding the impact of humankind as a global biogeochemical force ( 43 ), not only through the associated emissions of CO2, oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, trace metals, and more, but also through the mobilization of other materials, production of fertilizer, transport of water, and transformations of land that the availability of this energy made possible ( 44 ). At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st, the fossil-fuel-dominated energy supply system continued to impose immense environmental burdens at local, regional, and global scales, despite large investments and some success in reducing emissions to air and water per unit of energy supplied ( 29 ).